Bendazzi, Giannalberto. Cartoons: One Hundred Years of Cinema Animation. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1994.
Canemaker, John. Winsor McCay: His Life and Art. New York: Abbeville Press, 1987.
Crafton, Donald. Before Mickey: The Animated Film, 1898-1928. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1982.
Gifford, Denis. American Animated Films: 1897-1929. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland and Company, Inc., 1990.
Heraldson, Donald. Creators of Life: A History of Animation. New York: Drake Publishers, Inc., 1975.
Lenburg, Jeff. The Encyclopedia of Animated Cartoons. New York: Facts on File, 1991.
Maltin, Leonard. Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons. Rev. ed. New York: New American Library, 1987.
McIntire, Joy A., comp. Silent Animated Films at the Library of Congress. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1995.
Solomon, Charles. Enchanted Drawings: The History of Animation. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1989.